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Old 16-04-2004, 09:10 PM   #61
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Originally Posted by HuttShun
sorry for late late reply...nowadays seldom come to af but come only on fri, sat and sun cuz got sch..

metalyn blue i think can treat alot of illness... can prevent fungus from going onto discus eggs too..
i think i just tell the lfs owner u wan metalyn ( metal-lin) blue he will give u loh.. but must double check
It can reduce the poison effect of nitrate also.
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Old 07-05-2004, 03:39 AM   #62
Ornold Lim
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Originally Posted by HuttShun
Hmmm got nothing to do so just post this for fun. Maybe in future got use for new members who interested in keeping discus. If u guys think that i like to show off go ahead and think, I don't care. Good Discus keepers please correct me if i'm wrong.

Guide to keeping discus.

1)Make sure u have a at least (to me) a 2.5ft tank. Remember, the bigger the better.

2)Make sure you cycle your water properly, i cycled my tank for 1month with two sponge filters. You guys can choose to use other filters but make sure you cycle your tank and also make sure that the flow rate of the water is not so powerful, as discus don't like strong currents. The filter i recommend are sponge filters. ( I'm not too sure about this, so maybe someone can help me with the cycling of water?)

3)After finishing your cycling go and do some fish shopping, the place i recommend is "Chai Discus Farm" ( www.chaidiscus.com.sg ) I bought almost all my discus from there, they provide excellent service and they also produce good quality fishes. If u have any questions you can ask them.

4)Equipments: A heater ( discus prefer warm water and they do trive better in warm waters. if u have a heater maybe you can set it to 30 degree celsius)
P.H pen ( discus prefer low ph about 6.5 to 7? Please correct me if i'm wrong. you can choose not to get this. )

After having all your equipments and stuff ready. It's time to go and shop for discus!

1) get your discus from reputable aquariums. Other aquariums may con you into buying stunted discus.

2)After getting your fish, wait for it to settle down first, then try feeding a LITTLE bit of food to it. if it eats, then the discus is already stabilzed

3) get discus in a small group, they feel more comfortable living in small groups. abt 4 to 6 in a 2.5ft tank. of course when the tank is bigger u may want to add a few more into your tank. just make sure that they don't get too cramp.

Raising juveniles

1) as i said get your discus from reputable aquariums. if u plan to get a juvenile it is essential to feed it more often or they will get stunted.

2) checking for stunted discus, you look at their size of the body, if its small eye small body, then its not stunted, but if the size of the eye is big, its stunted. ( i'm not sure abt checking for stunted discus)

Breeding discus

1) If u get a confirm pair of discus, do not be too happy, they may be a pair but not a breeding pair.
2) if u intend to breed discus make sure that u have a lot of fish tanks. not too small not too big. maybe about 2.5ft or 3ft for breeding them.
3)if u spot a pair, u may want to seperate them into another tank, preferbly about 2.5ft to 3ft. get a breeding cone and wait for them to breed.
4) If they successfully breed and the offsprings are still eggs, u may want to add some metalyn blue to prevent the discus eggs from getting fungus.
5)if the fries are hatched do not feed them, they will feed on the slim on their parents body, but when they are slightly bigger you may want to seperate them and pump them wif food. juveniles can eat brine shrimp or blood worm.

Feeding Discus

1)you may want to feed dry food for discus. that is fine. but a mixture between dry and live food are the best.
2)Brine shrimp
3) blood worm
4) beef/ pig heart


If u have any more questions you may want to post it and i'll try to help you
And again as i said PLEASE CORRECT ME IF I'M WRONG.

Regards,
HuttShun
Bro HuttShun, To support U, let me add some A-Z

A.Acidic water is preferable for Discus, but it need not be exactly pH 6.3 or exactly 6.5, as long as it is on the acid side of neutral. Acid buffers can be quite safely used to lower your pH.

B.Brine shrimp nauplii (newly hatched) are an ideal first food for Discus fry after they are removed from their parents. Quick recipe: Hatch them at 80-82F in a pH of 7.5 or over using 6 tsp of salt per gallon of water to one tsp of eggs.

C.Canister filters are ideal for Discus- but choose one which will turn over the volume of the tank 2-3 times per hour.

D.Disinfect an empty tank that has contained diseased Discus with a solution of Potassium permanganate. Use enough to turn the water a deep purple- leave standing for one week, then rinse with fresh water.

E.Earthworms make excellent Discus food. Pile up grass cuttings in layers in a garden corner (not a compost heap), keep it moist and the worms will work their way up and through.

F.Protect eggs from fungus by adding a dose of Myxazin on the days prior to hatching.

G.Gill problems. Always eliminate the first three likely causes: Poor water quality, temperature too high, oxygen depletion, before you think of parasites. unnecessary treatments will only worsen the situation.

H.Heat can be used to treat Discus diseases. Gradually raise the temperature to around 30-32c for a few days. Aerate the water well to avoid oxygen depletion.

I.Intestinal parasites are often indicated by the passing of white stringy faeces. Examine them carefully before choosing a treatment.

J.Juvenile Discus have a strong shoaling instinct. Never keep less than six together.

K.Knowledge of the normal behaviour of your Discus will give you an early warning of when something is wrong.

L.Loss of colour can be seen in Discus when they are in too high a pH or are exposed to over-bright lighting.

M.When gill filaments turn mauve instead of a creamy white, there's a toxin present. Suspect and test for ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and pH.

N.Nitrate is often forgotten as a pollutant, but in high concentrations it can produce the same symptoms as parasites- flicking and scratching. Test for nitrates before treating with chemicals.

O.Open wounds or scratches heal quicker when a broad spectrum bactericide is added to the water to inhibit infection.

P.Prevention is better than cure- there is no substitute for a clean, well maintained sensibly stocked tank.

Q.Quarantine tanks are a must for the serious Discus keeper- and will double up as hospital tanks.

R.Razor back Discus are fish that have lost a lot of weight, perhaps by infestation by parasites. The forehead becomes very sharply pointed.

S.Spironucleus infections can be treated with Metronidazole- one 200mg tablet per 10 gallons of water.

T.Tail and fin rot is caused by bacteria attacking a Discus when it is stressed. Find and remove the cause of the stress, then treat with Myxazin.

U.Ultra violet sterilisers have a use in temporarily "damping down" heavy bacteria levels, but shouldn't be used constantly. A pro breeder who uses UV is expecting you to do the same, to keep your Discus healthy.

V.Vitamins are essential for the health of your Discus, but need not be added in quantity to your food mix. A good quality flake mixed in will contain all they require.

W.White worms are a favourite Discus food. Culture them in margarine tubs in a mixture of peat, soil and fine sand- feed them on Ready Brek mixed into a paste.

X.Extra feeds of a cultured live food- white worms, small red earthworms, are useful to bring Discus into spawning condition.

Y.Young Discus can be weaned onto solid food within days of leaving their parents. Start with brine shrimp but add a very fine powdered food such as Promin to move them on.

Z.Zero ammonia is essential in the Discus tank. when setting up a new tank, mature the filter for at least four weeks, using a small shoal of Corydoras, and introduce the Discus when the tank is mature.


Best Regard

Ornald lim
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Old 07-05-2004, 03:50 AM   #63
Ornold Lim
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Abit more info(may be will help alittle)

The first few weeks of a new aquarium are crucial to its success. Before we think about buying fish to add to our tanks, we must first prepare the "house" for them. An aquarium is a miniature living world, and to prepare the house means to establish in this little world all the necessary biology, which will allow a healthy life for the major inhabitants in this small and enclosed realm. Fish wastes, leftover food, and all other organic matter that accumulate in a tank don´t just simply disappear like magic. They are decomposed by microorganisms, often resulting in toxic substances. But since nature is wise, there are also creatures that want nothing else than to transform these decomposed substances into new compounds that can be used by other creatures. One of the most important classes of compounds that result from decomposition are the nitrogen-based substances, and the process through which they are gradually transformed is called the Nitrogen Cycle.

How and who makes these transformations? They are microscopic beings called nitrifying bacteria, whose role in nature is that of decomposers of nitrogen compounds. When we set up a new tank, these bacteria only exist in very small numbers (those few that happend to come with the water, with the gravel, etc). Therefore it is fundamental. in the first few weeks, to make this bacterial colony multiply until it reaches a population such that it can process the fish wastes to come. Thus, we depend on the formation of a good nitrifying bacterial colony in order to ensure a healthy life in our aquarium. In fishkeeping jargon, this initial period of colony formation is known as cycling the tank. A tank will only be ready to receive the main fish population when it is properly cycled. This process normally takes between 2 and 6 weeks to complete.

Let´s understand how this cycle works. Nitrogen (N) is a chemical element that goes into the composition of two very important classes of organic molecules: proteins and nucleic acids. Although it is present in great quantities in the air, in the form of nitrogen gas (N2), few living beings can assimilate it in this form. Only a special class of bacteria, mainly cianobacteria (which is often called blue-green algae), are able to capture N2, using it in the sinthesis of nitrogen-based organic molecules. These bacteria are called nitrogen fixers. They end up being eaten by other organisms, who in turn get eaten by other animals, and so on until the nitrogen compounds are spread throughout the entire ecosystem.

When these nitrogen compounds are released (death of an organism, or part of it, or through its excrements), they are processed by decomposing bacteria, and one of the main products of this decomposing is Ammonia Gas (NH3). Ammonia, in contact with water, forms Ammonium Hydroxide (NH4OH), a highly toxic substance which in large concentrations is highly corrosive. Ammonia is a very dangerous substance for fish, and its toxicity depends on temperature, pH, and water salinity. For instance, the more acid the pH, more Ammonium Hydroxide is neutralized and so the ammonia toxicity is reduced. On the other hand, more alkaline pH means more dangerous Ammonia. Luckily, this substance is consumed by bacteria called Nitrosomonas, which in the presence of Oxygen transform Ammonia into Nitrite (NO2-), obtaining energy through the following process:


2 NH3 + 3 O2 ----> 2 HNO2 + 2 H2O + Energy
The HNO2 (nitrous acid) also gets dissolved in water, releasing the nitrite ion (NO2-). Nitrite is another highly toxic substance for plants and animals, but luckily again it doesn´t accumulate in a well set up tank, because bacteria called Nitrobacter transform it into Nitrate (NO3-), also obtaining energy through the reaction:


2 HNO2 + O2 ----> 2 HNO3 + Energy
Only now, our nitrogen which started in the decomposing organic molecules has finally assumed a much less toxic form. In the aquarium, Nitrate begins to slowly accumulate as a result of this process. But we shouldn´t let it accumulate too much because it may lead to excessive growth of algae which use it as a nutrient. To avoid this, we do regular partial water changes and, better yet, add natural plants to the tank, because nitrate is readily consumed by them. In fact, plants are also good consumers of ammonia, and therefore very helpful in keeping this toxin under control.

The nitrifying bacteria will become fixed in any location where there´s a good supply of oxygen (since the main process of the cycle is aerobic, i.e., in the presence of oxygen). However, the colonies will prosper in places where there isn´t too much light, and where the water current doesn´t disturb them too much. This is the most important part of the Nitrogen Cycle in terms of fishkeeping, but actually it doesn´t stop here. As an example, if oxygen runs short in the water, Nitrate can be transformed back into Nitrite or, through a process called denitrifying, it can be transformed by anaerobic bacteria back into nitrogen gas (N2), and the cycle is complete.

Now that we know how the Nitrogen Cycle works, we may better inderstand how to proceed in a new aquarium, to ensure a healthy environment for our fish. The colonization process of these bacteria occurs without any necessary intervention. All they need is a source of organic matter. Once the tank is set up, filled with water and the filters turned on, we need to supply a little bit of ammonia to start the cycling process. Sometimes the tap water itself already contains ammonia, but in general it´s better to add some kind of incentive. Once again, a great way to start is by adding natural plants. Their own metabolism and the few leaves that fall off supply the initial nitrogen, and as we´ve already mentioned they help by preventing the ammonia level from getting too high. But you can also add a small pinch of flake food, or a very small slice of fish or shrimp, and there are several commercial products in the market which stimulate the cycle. Another good procedure is to use some gravel and/or water from an established tank, as long as you´re sure that tank is healthy.

Another very common procedure is to use "cycling fish" to accelerate the process. 2 or 3 hardy fish are added (Zebra Danios, for instance) to live in the tank while it´s going through the cycling process. But this is not the best solution because you´re submitting these fish to unnecessary stress. The ideal thing to do is buy a complete Freshwater Test Kit (pH, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate) and follow the ups and downs of ammonia and nitrite levels. When nitrite falls to zero after having gone up, the tank is ready to begin receiving fish. But even so the fish population should be added gradually, in order to allow the bacterial colony to adapt and grow according to the increased bioload.

Best Regard

Ornald Lim
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Old 27-05-2004, 06:55 PM   #64
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Read about an article in internet. Here it is to share and hope help.

http://www.devotedly-discus.co.uk/di...cus_health.htm

Cheers and hope benefit to every one.
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Old 21-08-2004, 11:49 PM   #65
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Mewmender
hutt... this discus thing I newbie... u must teach me liaoz... my discus got specs.. normal??
got specs means got pigeon genes.. normal for pigeon blood
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Old 22-08-2004, 01:58 AM   #66
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hi ppl
didnt bother to read the older threads
too long liaoz
anyway would like to ask a few qn
cos my bro wants to add discus to his planted tank (can be seen in my gallery)
it's a 2ft (l)by 1.5(h) ft by 1ft(b) tank
with a 800l/hr dolphin filter

inside have 3 angel fish and 50 neon tetra that are very small
is it advisable to keep discus in the tank?
how many discus can i keep with this set up?
would it be difficult to upkeep them
since its also a planted tank

and can someone tell me if i shld buy those less than 10 bucks the discus for the planted tank?
they r quite small speciemens
just abt 2inh????
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Old 22-08-2004, 07:57 AM   #67
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Quote:
Originally Posted by jebus
hi ppl
didnt bother to read the older threads
too long liaoz
anyway would like to ask a few qn
cos my bro wants to add discus to his planted tank (can be seen in my gallery)
it's a 2ft (l)by 1.5(h) ft by 1ft(b) tank
with a 800l/hr dolphin filter

inside have 3 angel fish and 50 neon tetra that are very small
is it advisable to keep discus in the tank?
how many discus can i keep with this set up?
would it be difficult to upkeep them
since its also a planted tank

and can someone tell me if i shld buy those less than 10 bucks the discus for the planted tank?
they r quite small speciemens
just abt 2inh????


You already have many fishes in the planted tank. Not advisable to add discus in now as it will definitely add to the bio load. Beside small tetras and Angel fishes also don't match when the Angel fishes grow large they will start attacking your tetras.
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Old 22-08-2004, 01:53 PM   #68
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Fantasy
You already have many fishes in the planted tank. Not advisable to add discus in now as it will definitely add to the bio load. Beside small tetras and Angel fishes also don't match when the Angel fishes grow large they will start attacking your tetras.
Agreed, the load is too hi already!
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Old 22-09-2004, 11:16 AM   #69
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Hi there

After reading this guide, I must say, info is certainly helpful. However, it is certainly recommendable to get the basic first time right.

Try to get book like "Penang Discus" which cost you less than $100 that can certainly save you hundreds or thousands of dollars, most importantly, your efforts and time are not wasted.

I do have to clarify, I do not have any vested interest in this book other than looking at the welfare of a hobbyist, cos it is a common mistake make by a hobbyist, resulting into wasting money, effort and most importantly time.

Hope this helps.
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Old 02-10-2004, 06:04 PM   #70
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Will stunted discus breed?
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